Enhancing Challenge Framing in Defence Organisations: Towards Reflexive Methods .


  • Philippe Beaulieu-Brossard, PhD
  • Philippe Dufort




challenge framing, challenge formulation, problematization, problem solving, problem statement, problem structuring, design theory, design methods, critical theory, system theory, planning, philosophy of knowledge, critical thinking, creative thinking


This article contributes to problem solving, design, and planning in defence organisations by arguing that a ‘problem’ or a ‘challenge’ is never objective, natural or ready-made. Challenges are contingent to the conditions under which individuals perceive and formulate them. As a result, this article understands ‘challenges’ and ‘approaches’ to address them as co-dependent on one another. This article recommends that officers should attempt to generate the most interesting and, we hope, innovative problem-solution pair or challenge-approach pair in order to integrate this insight into practice when problem solving, designing, or planning. Leaders and their teams can learn to inhabit this mind-set by finding inspiration in three modes observed through practice: initial challenge framing, challenge curation and co-evolution. For each of these modes, the article proposes reflexive methods and tools for enhancing introspection in challenge framing and formulation namely the Five Whys, question-storming, and loyal opposition. The article supports these recommendations and methods through insights gleaned from philosophy of knowledge, design theory, and on design experiences with the North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) in 2019.

Szerző életrajzok

Philippe Beaulieu-Brossard, PhD

Marie S. Curie Fellow at the Centre for Military Studies, University of Copenhagen and an assistant professor (on leave) specializing in Defence, Security Studies, and Design Theory at the Canadian Forces College (CFC)

Philippe Dufort

Associate professor at the School of Social Innovation at Saint Paul University, Ottawa


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Hogyan kell idézni

Beaulieu-Brossard, P. ., & Dufort, P. . (2021). Enhancing Challenge Framing in Defence Organisations: Towards Reflexive Methods . Honvédségi Szemle – Hungarian Defence Review, 148(2), 33–49. https://doi.org/10.35926/HDR.2020.2.2

Folyóirat szám


Innovation Methodologies For Defence Challenges